What are bunions?
A bunion, also called hallux valgus, is an enlarged, bony bump on the inner side of the joint at the base of the big toe.
Typically, a bunion is a result of a misaligned big toe joint and form on the joint. When you walk, the entire weight of the body rests on the bunion as you take a step which causes pain.
The condition develops slowly as the repetitive pressure from walking causes the big toe to turn inward toward the smaller toes. If not treated right away the deformity will increase in size and make it painful to walk.
Causes of bunionsAlthough the direct cause of bunions is unknown, contributing factors are:
- Wearing shoes that are too tight or not supportive
- Trauma to the foot at the big toe joint
- Neuromuscular disorders (such as polio)
Risk factors for bunions
Women are much more likely to develop bunions than men because they are more likely to wear shoes that do not fit properly.
Other risk factors of bunions include:
- Age — our feet spread out more as we age and this can put more stress on the foot
- Heredity — people with a family history of bunions are more likely to also develop them
- Overweight — people who are overweight put more pressure on the foot which can cause the bunion to develop
Symptoms of bunions
The most common symptom or sign of a bunion is a bump that bulges outward on the joint of the big toe.
Other symptoms of a bunion include:
- Constant or occasional pain when walking or standing
- Swelling or soreness around the joint in the big toe
- Calluses or corns can develop where the first and second toes overlap
Diagnosis of bunions
Bunions are diagnosed in a physical exam by your primary care doctor, podiatrist or orthopedic physician.
In some cases, the physician will order an x-ray to determine if there is a severe deformity in the joint. Your physician may also draw blood to determine if you have arthritis in the impacted area.
Treatment for bunionsBunions are not curable but can be corrected with surgery. Most patients can alleviate the pain from bunions by maintaining a healthy weight and wearing shoes that fit properly. Other treatments for bunions include:
- Splint or brace