A cystoscopy, also called bladder scope, is an endoscopic procedure to examine the bladder and urethra. Doctors perform a cystoscopy by inserting a special camera into the urethra, the tube urine comes out of. They are typically performed to diagnose urinary tract diseases, bladder cancer or to determine pain in the urinary tract. If doctors find anything suspicious, they can take a sample to look at under a microscope. Cystoscopies are typically performed at  the doctor's office with a local anesthetic, but may be performed as an outpatient procedure under sedation.